Social Economic Theories Library




(Michael Albert, Chriss Spannos)

participatory economics = anarchist economics

basic values: equity, solidarity, diversity, self-menagement

key aspects: worker and consumer councils, balansed job complexes, renumeration, participatory planning


work price: intnesity +  duration + load

product price: work price + productional costs

no added value

produced value – social output



(Marcel Mauss, Bronislaw Molinovski)

barter economy – goods/services in exchange for goods/services (reciprocity)

market economy – money as a mediator

gift economy – giving without expectation of return or reward property – is not a thing but a relation (connection) Self to the community!



(Takis Fotopoulos, Arran Gare)

-direct democracy-without a state

-economic democracy – a shareholding system

-a system without money

-a system without market


-ecological democracy


inclusive democracy – association of society with economy and nature (reintegration)


demos – the only representative value (no representation)

direct control of means of production, not representation

at micro level – voucher and stock system,

at macro level – collective social body


no money but vouchers


vouchers – personalized, based on the amount of work that is spent

no labor market and capital but exchange of goods and services (artificial market)


ideas for achieving direct democracy:

  1. engaging in local communities, (autonomy)
  2. internet communities (software development)



(Nansy Folbe)

main principle: care for others – key of humanity

care – work that is given to the other

girl domestic workers – focused on family

immigrant worker – one who leave the family


to share the care:

step 1 – to recognize care (women) work

step 2 – goverment services – to recognize care work

Capacity building: maternity protection, work and family, co-op., elimination of child labour, nursing, long term care, better data on care work, early childhood education…

step 3 –  to make care for the other become principle of work as such (universal bond)


care – redistributed values, reduces gender equality ect.

right, employment, social protection, social dialogue



(Andrew Dobson, Herman Daly)

pragmatic environmentalism – pragmatic change of things without changing the whole system (management).

ecologism – change of consciousness in relation to nature and economy (radical change of the system)

changing attitudes towards the natural environment – socialized consciousness

environmental management can not be implemented without ecological change (corporate responsibility)

enviromenatalism: cogeneration – awareness of energy processes – political change.


energy self-sustainability – political self-sustainability



(Edgar Cahn)

-an alternative monetary system that bases its value on units of time (the value of one hour of labor) rather than on commodities or other items of value such as cash

-focusing on the value of the individual rather than the value of a hard currency

-members earning “time dollars” by providing or using services

-treat the talents as a commodity

-focus on community outreach

care of the elderly, business development help and home repair etc.- types of work which does not have a true monetary value (time banking is not like a local currency) – used to increase the growth

exchange of goods and services. – > exchange of time and skills